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Journal of Elementary and Secondary Education (JESE)
ISSN: 2374-9113
Editor:
Dr. Kelley Walters
kWalters@theelearninginstitute.org


Description:

This online peer-reviewed journal serves researchers, teacher educators, and practitioners involved in K-12 education. JESE publishes articles focusing on research, theory, current issues, and/or applied practice. In addition, JESE presents articles that relate the latest research in child development, instructional strategies, and assessment to school learning and teaching. Each volume focuses on a major current topic in the preparation, study, and training of education professionals.
If you work with K-12 students, you need JESE as part of your professional library. Whether you're a new or experienced practitioner, each issue of JESE will help you improve your classroom practice and meet the needs of all your students.


Click Here for Topic List.
Articles by Month
2015
July
2015 | July | Volume: 6 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Melanie Shaw
Title: Professional Development Training: In-service teachers’ Perceptions
The results of this study add to current research literature that pertains to in-service teacher learning and professional development activities. A qualitative multiple-case study was utilized to determine in-service teachers’ perceptions in relation to how they learn during professional development activities to advance their pedagogical skills and the measures they perceived that should be utilized to enhance and facilitate their learning during professional development activities. Two major questions with a total of 20 semi-structured questions were utilized to provide findings for this study. The participants identified several factors as necessary to facilitate and aid their learning in relation to professional development activities. A few of the factors that would aid the participants learning in relation to professional development activities were also identified. A need still exists for several factors that would aid the participants’ learning during professional development to be implemented.
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October
2015 | October | Volume: 6 | Issue: 10 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Marybeth Zepka
Title: LEARNING STYLES AND BRAIN-BASED STRATEGIES NOTEBOOK
Offering differentiated learning styles and brain-based teaching strategies is at the heart of the student-centered approach to teaching. Lesson plans and curriculum must be structured around the specific needs of the students rather than designed for the comfort of the teacher’s preferences. The Project G.L.A.D. program offers a variety of differentiated instruction opportunities to encourage optimal learning experiences, moreover, teachers have an opportunity to create a brain-based strategies notebook to serve as a basis for better teaching strategies. Using Project G.L.A.D. structure as a basis, both special education and general education teachers can create learning experiences that encourage better student participation and growth in their academic endeavors.
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2014
January
2014 | January | Volume: 5 | Issue: 1 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Melanie Shaw
Title: Using Social Media in the Educational Environment
Social media is frequently used throughout American society. With a majority of adolescents participating in online interactions, educators must prepare to use social media in the educational process. While there are legitimate concerns over the ethical and legal dilemmas of using social media in education, those concerns do not override the importance of using a valuable tool to affect the cognitive process. By creating programs that teach good digital citizenship, educators can begin to facilitate online interactions that increase interest in traditional educational programs. Effective, ethical, and legal use of social media is essential to creating an educational environment where learning is maximized, the learning environment is safe and secure, and actual communication is occurring. By effectively using social media in education, educators will not only affect the cognitive process, they can also positively impact how future generations interact in a virtual world.
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April
2014 | April | Volume: 5 | Issue: 4 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Mel Shaw
Title: An Examination of Teacher’s Certification or Non-Certification on Students Achievement
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), founded in 1987, is a not for profit, nonpartisan organization that is governed by a 63-member board of directors, of which, the majority of whom are teachers who agree with the NCLB Act of 2001 requirements, but believed that the requirements of the NCLB Act are not the only requirements that could help produce highly qualified teachers. Because of the NBPTS commitment to shape the teaching profession to meet the nation’s needs, the NBPTS established the following guidelines as part of its mission statement to advance the quality of teaching and learning: (a) maintain high and rigorous standards for what accomplished teachers should know and be able to do, (b) provide a national voluntary system certifying teachers who meet these standards, and (c) advocate related education reforms to integrate National Board Certification in American education and to capitalize on the
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2013
January
2013 | January | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Miss Eugina Sanzenbacher
Title: Enhancing STEM Awareness in K-12 and Beyond
The need to increase the number of K-12 students taking STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) courses is ever increasing. The trend in global economies has changed over the past decade toward a more technology based economy (DeJarnette, 2012). Unfortunately, the United States has been falling behind Europe and Asia in the growth of professional workers for STEM careers (Lehming, 2010). Due to the “Educate to Innovate” campaign mandated by President Obama, collaborative efforts between the federal government, educational institutes, companies and non-profits are on the rise (Educate to Innovate, 2009). This paper will address potential strategies for enhancing STEM awareness in public education and beyond. Because ethnic minorities are an increasing number of our nation’s population, the need to close the achievement gap in STEM areas between minority and white students is of utmost importance. Areas of Enhancement; Parent Involvement, Early Exposure, Mentoring/Counseling, Challenging Course
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July
2013 | July | Volume: 4 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Mrs. Linda Lengacher
Title: LITERACY TIPS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATORS
Emergent literacy strategies should provide children with opportunities to learn regardless of age or background experience. Early childhood educators who supply their students with a rich learning environment based on proven reading research strategies set the stage for success. Early literacy encompasses a wealth of information for children to learn. Systematic and comprehensive instruction should be tailored to the needs of students. Family involvement and a partnership between home and school serve as an essential component in a child’s literacy needs. The ideas presented in this article were designed to enhance teacher knowledge and comprehension on how children learn to read and write.
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2013 | July | Volume: 4 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Rupert Green
Title: It Transcends Poverty: Factors Behind the Noted Absence of Blacks from New York City Specialized High Schools for the Intellectually and Artistically Gifted
A descriptive study of 347 New York City (NYC) high schools (HS) to explore the absence of Black students from the specialized HS for gifted and talented (G & T) students found 3.2% Asian, 1.8% White, .52% Hispanic, and .46% Black students deemed gifted. Notwithstanding the saliency of poverty for the discrepancy, the trivial percentage of Black students was problematic and suggests a convergence of mitigating factors that limit the early identification and placement of potentially bright Black students in G & T programs. Mitigating factors suggest a racial undertone related to the historical pedigree of Blacks’ relation with I Q testing. Recommendations include analyses of the procedures, practices, and effectiveness of the outreach, identification, and placement system as it relates to gifted and talented Black youth. The strengthening of the City’s G & T schools/programs and the socioeconomic integration of its failing Black and Hispanic schools were also
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2013 | July | Volume: 4 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Graciela Nava
Title: Children's Cultural Diversity Education in a Global Community: Insights from Europe and the United States
Because of the Internet and other advances in communication, the world is becoming truly a world village (Friedman, 2005). Barriers of nationality and even language can be easily overcome with social sites like Facebook, LinkedIn, and instant translations from Bing. Schools need to prepare young people to become not only citizens of their own nations, but also citizens of the world as well. Therefore, multicultural education should start as early as possible, when stereotypes have not been firmly imprinted in the mind. The following pages look at multicultural education in Europe and the United States.
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August
2013 | August | Volume: 4 | Issue: 8 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Mel Shaw
Title: The Factors Contributing to the Increased Academic Performance of High School Athletes
The benefits of participation in high school athletics have been widely documented. Research results suggest that students that develop a sense of belonging, a sense of responsibility, are self-disciplined, and are intrinsically motivated academically outperform other students. This qualitative single case study revealed that students who participated in high school athletics developed the aforementioned traits and more. These results indicate that the positive traits identified can be applied to other programs and further encouraged by all those involved in teaching and coaching to reach students so that a maximum number of students can experience academic success.
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November
2013 | November | Volume: 4 | Issue: 11 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Patricia Henry
Title: Overage students in the classroom: Teachers lived experiences
Student’s overage for their grade level can bring stigmas with them to the classroom. These students can have a marked impact not only on the classroom, but also on the environment of the school, the effectiveness of the teacher, and the other at grade level students with whom they interact. This research based narrative presents teacher perspectives on the impact these overage students have in their classrooms and on the other at grade level students. Additionally, teacher perceptions of these students’ academic and social development are discussed. Suggested teacher training and professional development strategies are also offered as support tools.
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2012
January
2012 | January | Volume: 3 | Issue: 1 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Gary McDaniel
Title: Effects of Technology Usage on Student Learning
In today’s educational arena there are numerous critical roles that the computer and other technologies play from the classroom to the front office. Overall, computers have served as instruments to work with and to think with, as the means to carry out projects, and as a source of concepts to think of new ideas. In addition, the computer can be used as a tool to prepare students for the future world of work in a technical global society.
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April
2012 | April | Volume: 3 | Issue: 4 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Julie Treadwell, Ed. D
Title: The Impact of Discovery Learning in Writing Instruction on Fifth-Grade Student Achievement
Because 5th-grade students are not achieving sufficient writing scores on Georgia state-mandated writing assessments, an intervention was delivered regarding the teacher-directed instructional approach utilized at one school. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine whether discovery learning, a method based on the constructivist learning theory, increased student writing achievement. The research questions examined the impact of and factors related to the implementation of discovery learning on student writing achievement. Forty-six fifth grade students participated in this 8-week concurrent triangulation mixed methods study; all participated in writing instruction through the traditional writer’s workshop, and half received the discovery learning component embedded within writer’s workshop. Pre and posttests were given to measure the effect of the treatment and the data were analyzed using an independent measures t test. The key results indicated an insignificant mean difference between the 2 groups: t (44) =
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May
2012 | May | Volume: 3 | Issue: 5 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Mel Shaw
Title: The Time-Synchronous Task-Customized Learning Classroom of the Future
Educators must predict and respond to trends. Because of rapid technology change, it can be difficult to anticipate the future of K-12 schooling. Challenges exist to the establishment of the envisioned classroom in several key areas; among these is interoperability problems associated with divergent technologies, the establishment of a wired/wireless tablet network within a classroom with associated software support, and access controls and programs needed to monitor and document student activity properly. This article is the sharing of a vision, which may act as a starting point for a new round of discussions encompassing the future of K-12 education.
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June
2012 | June | Volume: 3 | Issue: 6 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Melanie Shaw
Title: 10,000 Ways to Build Student Retention
Student dropout rates have increased over the past few decades and educators are eager to find new ways to engage students and build retention. It is important to ensure that learning is relevant to keep students engaged. In this article, the authors argue that school leaders should pool resources to develop a repository of technology enhanced lessons to engage students in relevant, exciting learning. The cost to create and maintain such a system will be substantial, with several large production facilities involved continually in creating and updating the audiovisual library; however, the potential value of such a system may be almost beyond measure, as ever increasing pedagogic value is obtained. Although the number and variety of presentations might at first be limited, over time as the presentation numbers will approach 10,000 and teachers will be hard pressed to find a subject not well covered.
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October
2012 | October | Volume: 3 | Issue: 10 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Lana Hiskey
Title: Cyberbullying–The New Reality
Bullying is not new to students or education and has been around as long as people have lived side by side. This new generation of students has never known life without all of the technology gadgets such as cell phones, Internet, iPads, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Students can create their own identity or profile that can literally be sent to thousands of people in hours. Unfortunately, many of these same students can use these technologies to bully and harass other students. Education’s new reality is that bullying has drastically changed in the last decade. Bullying has moved from the playground right to the internet. There are guides and tips to help parents, students, and educators prevent and respond to the ever challenging cyber aggression.
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December
2012 | December | Volume: 3 | Issue: 12 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Mel Shaw
Title: Personal Contract or Political Construct? A Historiographical Examination of Vassalage in Medieval France
Relationships were of great importance during the late medieval period. There was little more valued or honored than a relationship entered upon by mutual assent and trust. The rise of feudalism required that such oral contracts, rich in symbolic meanings, be entered upon to the benefit of both parties. Loyalties were secured for the promise of protection, a necessity in uncertain times. This construct, termed vassalage, was the mechanism by which feudalism operated and flourished. In this essay, the concept of vassalage is investigated by discussing the scholarship of distinguished historians like Stephenson, Bloch, and Ganshof and juxtaposing their work against the revisionist study by Reynolds. This research is important for educators teaching history in K-12 settings.
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2012 | December | Volume: 3 | Issue: 12 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Kelley Walters
Title: Promoting Writing Among Young Children
Children begin reading as they recognize logos, like McDonald’s, Wal-Mart and other environmental print. It is important for parents and teachers to provide children a print rich environment that promotes literacy. Printed information should be posted in the classroom and in the home. The easiest ways to add print to the environment are labeling, writing notes, and making lists. Early literacy skills begin to develop in the early stages of childhood through activities where children write words by making some scribbles on a piece of paper. As children become creative in their thinking, they also imitate the writing of others and later start to create their own writings and invented spelling. Although these activities are simple, they are an important part of a child’s literacy development. The
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2012 | December | Volume: 3 | Issue: 12 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Laurel Richie Mertens
Title: WHAT HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SAY ABOUT THEIR ASPIRATIONS, ATTRIBUTIONAL THINKING, AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
This paper describes a non-experimental, mixed methods research study of the aspirations, attributional thinking, and achievement motivation of high school students. The study’s mixed results are presented. No significant correlations were evident between the predicator variable of attributional thinking and the criterion variables of academic performance, aspirations, and achievement motivation when quantitative data were explored. In contrast, the qualitative data indicated a complex relationship such that students’ aspirations, explanatory thinking, attitudes, and emotions served to sustain their achievement motivation and long-term learning focus despite universally expressed criticisms of the educational structure. The complex nature of the study’s results point to the need for further investigation of the interrelationship of motivation-related variables, and greater appreciation for the intimate role students play in the education equation.
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2011
January
2011 | January | Volume: 2 | Issue: 1 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Gary McDaniel
Title: Customer Service for Schools: Lessons from Corporate America
Poor customer service is the number one reason American companies lose business. This same premise can easily be applied to the institution of education in the loss customers, clients, and stakeholders, in the form of students, teachers, parents, and community member support. In today’s competitive environment, a school’s success and survival may depend on how well the customers are served. Many educators are not yet comfortable with this invasion of change, yet recognize its importance. The literature highlights many important points relating to the recent perspectives on the need for customer service in all organizations, to include the field of education. Many of these highlights are presented in this article.
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2011 | January | Volume: 2 | Issue: 1 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Faith Andreasen
Title: Simplifying Social Security Administration Programs for Disabled Students
With the current economy affecting many facets of society, students with disabilities and their guardians must work harder than ever to educate themselves regarding programs that can support their needs. The Social Security Administration (SSA) has various assistance programs which have been devised to assist disabled students. Four such programs for which these students might qualify are the Supplemental Security Income (SSI), the Plan for Achieving Self-Support (PASS), the Impairment-Related Work Expenses (IRWE) program, and the Ticket to Work program.
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2011 | January | Volume: 2 | Issue: 1 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Lawanna Lewis
Title: Teachers’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Benchmark Assessment Data to Predict Student Math Grades
The purpose of this correlational quantitative study was to examine the extent to which teachers perceive the use of benchmark assessment data as effective; the extent to which the time spent teaching mathematics is associated with students’ mathematics grades, and the extent to which the results of math benchmark assessment influence teachers’ pedagogy. Participants were 67 teachers who were administered a 5-point Likert scale assessment. Using descriptive statistics, the results of Research Question 1 showed that teachers agree that frequent use of benchmark assessment data is effective. A Pearson correlation was used with the data to answer Research Question 2 and indicated a positive correlation between instructional time and students’ grades. A significant, positive correlation was found between average class mathematics grades and the number of hours teachers spend teaching mathematics per week, r(65) = .33, p < .01. Students’ class averages ranged from 70.36% - 94.30%. In answer
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February
2011 | February | Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Brian Bontempo
Title: Generation Y Student-Teachers’ Motivational Factors
Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) leaders. Quantitative data were collected via a survey from 50 Generation Y, K-12, student-teachers from a private, accredited university in Ohio, and from 32 K-12 educational leaders. Quantitative data were analyzed using independent t tests and results showed statistically significant differences in 11 of the 15 motivational factors. Qualitative data were collected from eight administrators using the focus group interview model and analyzed for themes and patterns. Areas of high motivation for student-teachers, as noted in the qualitative findings, included student-centered working responsibilities, gains in student achievement, higher levels
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2011 | February | Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Gary McDaniel
Title: Developing the Organization’s Human Capital: The Principal’s Role
The most important capital that any organization possesses is the human element. People are the most valuable asset and principal leaders have the task of developing this human capital so that the organization will continue to grow. This article will provide various methods for developing and improving an organization’s human capital.
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March
2011 | March | Volume: 2 | Issue: 3 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Kelley Jo Walters
Title: Constructivism: A Critical Piece of Effective Classroom Management
The driving forces behind any educational system are the components of visions and missions that are drawn from the various philosophical and ideological tenets that correspond with the values and beliefs of the stakeholders. These ambitions give impetus to the development of curriculum and instructional practices that are judged to be most promising and beneficial to the community. In this article, we discuss how the theory of constructivism can impact classroom management.
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June
2011 | June | Volume: 2 | Issue: 6 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Kelley Jo Walters
Title: Curriculum for Diverse Learners
Throughout the school year, it is important to evaluate the success of the developed curriculum, but this evaluation must be kept in perspective. All too often, curriculum is planned around assessment rather than assessment being planned to evaluate the curriculum’s success. Several components should be taken into account when designing curriculum: objectives, content, learning experience and evaluation. Each of these components is important to the existence and success of students. They are determined by the creators’ various philosophies, as well as current societal and political issues, and involve scope and sequence, continuity, balance, integration, and articulation. Each of these elements can and should be altered and adjusted as needed in order to meet any special needs of the learners.
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July
2011 | July | Volume: 2 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Kelley Jo Walters
Title: Ways to Create an Orderly Classroom Where All Students Learn
Teaching is hard work. Anyone who thinks otherwise has never stepped inside a classroom, looked into the eyes of 35 students, and closed the door. If American public schools are to thrive in the future, we must equip all teachers, especially enthusiastic rookie teachers, with the skills, attitudes, strategies, and behaviors, which will help them survive when they close their classroom doors and meet their students on that first day of school.
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2011 | July | Volume: 2 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Melanie Shaw
Title: Overrepresentation of Students of Color in Special Education Classes
The long-term consequences of the overrepresentation of students of color in special education programs negatively impacts American society. The high drop-out rate, limited opportunity for employment, and increased possibility of incarceration are a high price for America to pay. Educators need to persistently draw attention to this issue and to urge our educational leaders to bring about required changes. Teacher education programs and school districts must provide pre-service and in-service training in matters related to student diversity and educators must continue to redefine the goals and functions of special education while advocating for the educational needs of all students.
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August
2011 | August | Volume: 2 | Issue: 8 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Kelley Jo Walters
Title: RTI: The Use of Progress Monitoring
There has been a significant amount of research done involving effective instructional techniques and strategies for students, including students with special needs. Much of the recent research involves differentiated instruction (Landrum & McDuffie, 2010; Levy, 2008; Bailey & Williams-Black, 2008). The use of differentiated techniques can be identified in numerous ways such as scaffolding, flexible grouping, varying length of time for mastery, and encouraging advanced learners to examine topics in greater depth (Levy, 2008). Response to Intervention (RTI) is a data-driven means of making educational decisions for all students, based on regularly collected data and research-based interventions. RTI drives the alignment of the curriculum and instruction to the state standards. Students are then taught, accordingly, with the use of differentiation and progress monitoring.
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2011 | August | Volume: 2 | Issue: 8 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Marcella Kehus
Title: “Let’s not take turns. Let’s have a conversation instead.”: Improving student-led conversations about literature
What Book Club teachers and researchers have consistently offered is a “framework for literacy instruction” with an emphasis on high quality literature, small peer-led discussions (the Book Clubs), as well writing done in response to the reading and making meaning or comprehension as the goal of reading (McMahon, 1994; Raphael & McMahon, 1994; Raphael, Pardo, Highfield, & McMahon, 1997; Raphael, Pardo & Highfield, 2005). Although originally developed with upper elementary grades in mind, within the decade to follow major work was done to adapt Book Club to both higher grades including middle school (Raphael, Author, & Damphousse, 2001) as well as to develop the Book Club Plus! Program specifically for lower grades (Raphael, Florio-Ruane, George, Hasty, & Highfield, 2004). Throughout this work, there has also been specific attention paid to diverse learners including those who speak English as a second language (Brock, 1992) as well as those who had not previously been mainstreamed
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September
2011 | September | Volume: 2 | Issue: 9 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Melanie Shaw
Title: Tackling the Achievement Gap Effectively
Systemic change was identified as the critical mass that made a difference in student outcomes regardless of school demographics. The system-wide changes included changed practices, attributes, and resources. The academic achievements of the successful urban schools are representative of schools that have successfully made that critical change. Similar results can be found in other schools of very special interest throughout the nation. Identification of the instructional strategies employed at each of the successful schools yielded a descriptive collection of replicable solutions to address the challenges of at-risk students. Additional proactive research would contribute to that collection. By concentrating upon what is working rather than upon the continuing failures, perhaps the achievement gap could finally begin to narrow. If that were to happen, the NCLB goal of universal proficiency for all students might eventually be realized.
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2011 | September | Volume: 2 | Issue: 9 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Lawanna Lewis
Title: Spiraling the Math Curriculum for Elementary Students
Mathematics continues to be one of the most loved and feared subjects in American schools. Principals and teachers understand the subject’s value to society. However, many elementary school teachers are either fearful or uncomfortable teaching upper grade level math partly due to limited knowledge of students’ needs and the lack of professional training in mathematics. This could hinder the math progress of students in American schools. In today’s global environment, student success depends upon a strong foundation in mathematical concepts. The literature highlights many important aspects of a spiraling math curriculum that will increase student and teacher effectiveness. These points are offered in this article.
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2010
April
2010 | April | Volume: 1 | Issue: 4 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Hanan Tawil-Hijazi
Title: Beginning Arabic Instruction in America: A Curriculum Model for Second Language Instruction in U.S. Public Schools
This paper allowed for an examination of the feasibility of introducing a beginners-level Arabic language curriculum into US public schools. At present, only a limited number of public schools conduct Arabic language instruction to English language speakers, primarily in heavily Arab urban areas. There exists a compelling need for a greater number of fluent Arabic-speaking and reading Americans, particularly for three applications: 1) in international business and commerce in the energy sector and other areas; 2) in diplomatic and political exchanges of all kinds; and 3) for military and intelligence purposes. Researchers suggest only through extensive and early immersion classes can non-speakers attain fluency and meet the requirements of these three important areas of communication. This paper focuses on the specific issues affecting the feasibility and implementation of Arabic language courses in US public schools.
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July
2010 | July | Volume: 1 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. David Hale
Title: Increase in the Diagnosis of ADHD in Elementary Age Children
The relationship between the reduction in recess (allotted time for physical play in schools) and the increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) for elementary age children has skyrocketed in recent years. The lack of unstructured physical activity increases poor behavior among young children, especially in a school setting. Many educational administrators hypothesize that academic performance would increase if more time was spent in the class room versus time spent on the playground; however, research has shown otherwise. Not only does the reduction in physical play have a negative effect on test scores, but it also had a negative effect on behavior.
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2010 | July | Volume: 1 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Julie Treadwell
Title: The Missing Piece: Writer's Workshop Revised
Writer’s workshop is utilized in schools throughout the nation to increase student writing achievement. Despite its implementation, students still struggle in writing proficiency and lack enthusiasm for the method of instruction. Discovery learning is a method of instruction that allows students to manipulate, problem solve, and test ideas. It encourages inquiry and socialization, while allowing students opportunities to explore the topic before incorporating it into their writing; thus students’ ability to apply the learned information improves. Because discovery learning activities allow for socialization, experimentation, and authenticity, student motivation towards writing increases as well. Five guidelines are outlined in the article to assist teachers with the incorporation of a discovery learning component to the writer’s workshop daily block: remain skill specific, vary the activities, include tangible materials, allow for peer interaction, and keep it short. By following these guidelines, teachers can improve their daily writing instruction.
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2010 | July | Volume: 1 | Issue: 7 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. David Hale
Title: Increase in the Diagnosis of ADHD in Elementary Age Children
The relationship between the reduction in recess (allotted time for physical play in schools) and the increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) for elementary age children has skyrocketed in recent years. The lack of unstructured physical activity increases poor behavior among young children, especially in a school setting. Many educational administrators hypothesize that academic performance would increase if more time was spent in the class room versus time spent on the playground; however, research has shown otherwise. Not only does the reduction in physical play have a negative effect on test scores, but it also had a negative effect on behavior.
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August
2010 | August | Volume: 1 | Issue: 8 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Carrie Doker
Title: Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions Regarding Teaching English Language Learners in the Social Studies Classroom
English language learners (ELLs) are being taught social studies by teachers who have received limited resources and training to teach this subject to ELLs in the general education classroom. The purpose of this evaluative case study using a mixed methods approach was to explore teacher perceptions regarding teaching social studies to ELLs before and after the implementation of a professional learning community (PLC) based on Piaget’s constructivist learning theory and the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. The data were collected over 8 weeks and incorporated pre- and postsurveys, pre- and postindividual interviews, and focus group data. A 2-parameter dependent t test and Mann-Whitney analysis from pre- and postsurveys were used. No statistical difference was noted between teacher responses from the pre- and postsurvey results. Findings revealed positive teacher perceptions due to the implementation of a PLC. The study recommends schools consider implementing PLCs for teacher learning.
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September
2010 | September | Volume: 1 | Issue: 9 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Michele Lucia, Jeanne Amos
Title: Literacy Strategies: An End to the Debate
The debate between Whole Language instruction and Phonics continues, but a new philosophy is emerging and claims are being made that it is the best approach for helping children to build and enhance literacy skills. This new philosophy is called Balanced Literacy. Balanced Literacy is an approach that claims to bring together the best aspects of all current philosophies and approaches, and combine them together in a way that best supports and educates children. Balanced Literacy has a goal of helping children become readers and writers who can read for pleasure and comprehend the value of literacy. Balanced Literacy consists of a number of elements that provide massive amounts of reading and writing on a daily basis. This paper presents not only a discussion of Balanced Literacy and its benefits, but also an assortment of strategies teachers can use right away to enhance their teaching practice.
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October
2010 | October | Volume: 1 | Issue: 10 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Kelley Jo Walters
Title: Guided Reading in First Grade: Consideration of Practice and Discourse
One of the most important responsibilities facing first grade teachers is teaching young children to read and write. In the history of American reading instruction, teachers of reading have tried a variety of approaches in order to teach beginning readers to read. For example, in the 1960s, 27 studies (Bond & Dykstra, 1967) were conducted in first grade classrooms attempting to ascertain the most effective approach to beginning reading instruction. Among the approaches employed were the use of controlled vocabulary, linguistic readers, language experience approach, and an individualized reading model. No single approach to reading appeared to be the most successful in teaching children to read. Although there were separate findings reported for each study, a macroanalysis of the 27 studies concluded that the most effective teachers were those who used a multitude of strategies (Bond & Dykstra, 1997). Since that time, educators have continued to experiment and use a variety of
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2010 | October | Volume: 1 | Issue: 10 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Kelly Smith
Title: Impact of Animal Assisted Therapy Reading Instruction on Reading Performance of Homeschooled Students
This pilot study aimed to determine the impact of AAT reading instruction on reading performance, within a sample of 26 homeschooled students in grade 3. An experimental pre/post test control group research design was utilized for this pilot study. The effect of AAT on reading performance was determined based on the results of two-tailed two-sample t-test statistical analysis of participant pre/post test scores of the Gray Oral Reading Test 4th edition (GORT-4) in the areas of reading rate and overall reading quotient. The two-tailed two-sample t-test score t(24) = 2.56, p=.017 confirmed that AAT oral reading instruction significantly impacted student reading rate. Due to the small size of this pilot study, the analysis lacked sufficient power, limiting findings to this study. However, this research prepares the foundation for future larger studies that can explore the instructional effectiveness of AAT.
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2010 | October | Volume: 1 | Issue: 10 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Dr. Peter Kiriakidis
Title: How Does Online Professional Development via Skype Contribute to K-12 Administrators’ Increase Levels of Self-efficacy?
The findings revealed that online professional development via Skype contributed to K-12 Administrators’ increase levels of self-efficacy. Institutes of higher education, professional development providers, administrators’ associations, school districts, and school leaders may benefit from having an awareness of how online professional development via Skype contribute to K-12 Administrators’ increase levels of self-efficacy in the field of teaching and learning. Administrators’ self-efficacy can be increased through opportunities for ongoing, systemic, and systematic online professional development via Skype with stakeholders in the school district.
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November
2010 | November | Volume: 1 | Issue: 11 | © The eLearning Institute
By: Barbara Hall
Title: Nonmaleficence and the Preparation of Classroom Teachers in Instructional Design
The ethical principle of nonmaleficence refers to the avoidance of unnecessary harm whenever possible. Translated to the field of education, this principle requires that educational methods avoid unnecessary harm to students engaging those methods. Some scholars of instructional design (ID) suggest that current methods of teaching ID do not properly prepare the pupil to become a practitioner. This paper considers questions of whether it is ethical to teach ID in such a way that it does not adequately prepare the pupil to become a practitioner and whether ‘adequate’ preparation implies a risk of harm when compared to ‘best’ preparation. Given the research considered, there is insufficient evidence to prove risk, injury, or harm to students of ID; therefore, nonmaleficence does not provide an adequate context in which to consider the debate on how best to prepare teachers for the practice of ID.
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